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Digital Publications Indexing SIG, a Special Interest Group of the American Society for Indexing

(Republished with permission from the author. Originally published on the Web site of Marisol Productions)

Web Site Indexing
By Marilyn Joyce Rowland

Prepared for the Web Indexing Workshop, presented at the June 1999 Annual
Conference of the American Society of Indexers and updated July 2000.

Introduction:

Web site indexing involves two basic skills: indexing and Web site design, and an intangible one: the willingness and resourcefulness to invent new ways to present information to people. Web site indexes can be similar to book indexes or to tables of contents, they may incorporate features of search engines, or they can be whole new approaches to that basic task of an index: connecting people with the information they are seeking, and, perhaps, with information they don't yet know is there. 

This article provides the basic information you will need to construct a basic Web site index. But, as you do so, remember that there are few rules in Web site indexing; that the "best" form of a Web site index is highly dependent on the type of Web site you are indexing and the needs of the audience you are creating the index for. 

Remember that the online user generally wants answers in a hurry. While surfing the Web can be fun and diverting, index users are generally looking for specific information, and your job is to help them find it. Experiment with new ways of quickly connecting people to information, and look at Web site indexing as adding a whole new dimension to the puzzle and challenge of creating useful indexes for the needs of specific audiences. 

1. Basic HTML:

Unless you are working with a Web site design team and are only expected to come up with index terms, you’ll need to know basic HTML commands before you start indexing. Sure, you can use an HTML editor or fancy What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get Web site design program, but you should have an understanding of what HTML is and how it works, as well as a knowledge of how to construct an index in plain HTML. This will help you format your index page more precisely, and it will be invaluable in helping you to identify and fix HTML problems. 

As you become more involved with Web site indexing, you may learn other techniques that will help you devise new and wonderful Web site indexes: JavaScript and other scripting languages, CGI, Java, DHTML, XML, Active Server Pages, and a whole range of yet-to-be-invented Web technologies. We won’t deal with any of these today, but, should you decide to learn more about Web design options, keep Web site indexing in mind, and look for ways these new technologies might make your index more useful, more clear, or even more entertaining to the user. 

HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is simply a means of coding text files so that they can be read by any computer. HTML allows you to format the text (add bold, italics, and different fonts, paragraph formatting and indentation), and add graphics, sound, video, animation, and hyperlinks that allow users to instantly jump from one spot in your page to another in the same page, or (somewhat less than instantly, but still pretty quickly) from another spot in your page to a relevant Web site on the other side of the world. Links are one of the key aspects of HTML; they allow the creation of the World Wide Web, and they are crucial to Web site indexing, which, in its simplest form, is a list of links. 

There are a multitude of excellent books on how to write HTML. There are a plethora of Web sites on various aspects of writing HTML: articles, tutorials, lists of tips, glossaries, and encyclopedic approaches. Think of this brief article as an introduction to these books and articles, not as a substitute for them. Keep in mind that the Web is constantly changing, that new technologies are constantly being developed, that you should try to learn as much as you can about HTML, but, also, that you can do a lot with very simple HTML. 

a. Simple HTML Concepts:

HTML is written using tags, which are commands written inside angle brackets: < and >. Most tags are written as pairs, with opening tags and closing tags surrounding the affected text. Opening and closing tags are identical except that the closing tag contains a forward slash symbol (/). In <B>American Society of Indexers</B>, <B> is the opening tag and </B> is the closing tag. The tag is used to create boldface text. When you look at <B> American Society of Indexers </B> in a browser, you will not see the tags, but you will see the formatting: American Society of Indexers

The "B" can be typed in upper case or lower case; it makes no difference. Many people prefer to use upper case because the codes stand out more clearly from the text this way. Others prefer to use lower case. If you use an HTML editor, you may find that the editor automatically changes all tags to upper case. It’s best to be flexible! 

Many tags have attributes and values that provide options for the text. If you want to make text appear red, for instance, you can use the <FONT> tag, the COLOR attribute, and the #FF0000 hexidecimal value. Values are inserted within quotation marks. For instance, the following code 

<FONT COLOR="#FF0000">Web Site Indexing</FONT>will create red text. 

Spacing between lines of text is handled with special tags, as browsers ignore extra spaces. <BR> with produce a ling break; <P> will produce a paragraph break. There are many additional ways of controlling spacing. 

Links are created with the <A> tag and HREF attribute. In this case, the value is Thus, we can create a link to the publications page on the ASI Web site from the words "American Society of Indexers" by typing: 

<A HREF="http://www.asindexing.org/">American Society of Indexers</A>

b. Creating a Simple Web Page:

Write your HTML page in ASCII format and save it with an .htm extension. You can use any word processor or HTML editor. 

All HTML codes are placed within <HTML> tags, so start by by typing <HTML> at the top of your page and </HTML> a couple of lines down. Place all other tags between these two tags. 

Web pages generally have two sections: a HEAD section and BODY section. Information about the Web page goes into the HEAD section, including the title and any information you may wish to include in META tags (such as keywords to better enable search engines to find your site). while the BODY section contains the bulk of the page: the text, graphics, links, and formatting that users will see in their browsers. 

For now, we will put only the title of the Web page in the Head section. The title appears on the top of the browser, not in the page itself. To create the HEAD section, and insert a title, type 

<HEAD> 

<TITLE>American Society of Indexers Web Workshop Web Page--Web Site Index</TITLE> 

</HEAD>

It is usually desirable to use the name of your Web site as the title for all your pages, along with subtitles for specific pages, as above. This will make your page more identifiable to both users and search engines. 

Now, create the BODY by typing 

<BODY> 

</BODY>

All the rest of your HTML coding will be placed between the opening BODY tag and the closing body tag. 

First, create a title that will be seen on the page itself. HTML offers six levels of headers (conveniently named H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, and H6) that can be used to organize your page. H1 is the largest heading and H6 is the smallest. These tags affect size and placement of the text you place within them. Experiment with them. You will rarely use all of them in a single document. You don’t need to use any of them, as there are other ways to format a heading, but let’s start by creating an H1 tag and an introductory paragraph. 

<BODY> 

<H1>Web Site Index</H1> 

Welcome to my Web Site Index. Here, you’ll find links to all the information contained in this Web site. 

</BODY>

Now, let’s add the A entries in our index:
 
<BODY> 

<H1>Web Site Index</H1>

Welcome to my Web Site Index. Here, you’ll find links to all the information contained in this Web site. 

A
absolute URLs
accents
alignment
of images
of text
alphabetic order
American Society of Indexers
anchors
creating
links to
in the same page
in a different page
ASCII format
asterisks, in frames
attributes
</BODY> 

Unless you specify paragraphs or line breaks, browsers will run all this text together. Instead of a nice index, you’ll see something like this when you look at your page in a browser: 

Web Site Index

Welcome to my Web Site Index. Here, you’ll find links to all the information contained in this Web site. A absolute URLs accents alignment of images of text alphabetic order American Society of Indexers anchors creating links to in the same page in a different pageASCII format asterisks, in frames attributes 

One way of specifying paragraphs is with paragraph tags. Simply place a <P> tag before each line and a </P> tag at the end of each line. (Actually the closing P tag is not necessary, but some people prefer to use both the opening and the closing tags. 

Another way is to use the line break tag, <BR>, where you want the line break to occur. There is no closing tag. 

The <P> tag creates spacing after the text. The <BR> tag does not. Let's use the <P> tag to set off the letter A. 

<P>A</P>We could use the <BR> tag to separate the index entries, but, how do we deal with the indented subentries and sub-subentries? HTML provides many options, but some are easier than others to implement, and not all are viewed the same way by all browsers. You may want to experiment with various options, including fancy ones like subentries that are hidden until the user places his or her mouse over the main entry. In the next section, we’ll discuss one widely used method, the use of definition lists.

2. Formatting an Indented Index:

Definition lists are used to glossary lists, or any other kind of list in which a word or phrase is paired with a longer description. The description is indented and placed on the line below the word or phrase that is defined. In our index example, the word or phrase is the main entry, and the description or definition is the subentry. 

Definition lists are created with <DL>, <DT> and <DD> tags. DL stands for definition list; DT stands for definition term, and DD stands for definition definition. First, enclose the whole index section in <DL></DL> tags. Then add <DT> tags around main headings and <DD> tags around subentries. 

<DL> 

<DT>absolute URLs</DT> 

<DT>accents</DT> 

<DT>alignment</DT> 

<DD>of images</DD> 

<DD>of text</DD> 

<DT>alphabetic order</DT> 

<DT>American Society of Indexers</DT> 

<DT>anchors</DT> 

<DD>creating</DD> 

<DD>links to</DD> 

in the same page 

in a different page 

<DT>ASCII format</DT> 

<DT>asterisks, in frames</DT> 

<DT>attributes</DT>

</DL> 

This takes care of all but the sub-subentries. To format sub-subentries, you’ll need to use nested <DL> tags. Add another set of <DL> tags around the material to be further indented. Then add additional <DD> tags, as needed. The anchors entry and associated subentries and sub-subentries with look like this:  <DT>anchors</DT> 

<DD>creating</DD> 

<DD>links to</DD> 

<DL> 

<DD>in the same page</DD> 

<DD>in a different page</DD> 

</DL> 

The whole A section of the index will look like this:  <DL> 

<DT>absolute URLs</DT> 

<DT>accents</DT> 

<DT>alignment</DT> 

<DD>of images</DD> 

<DD>of text</DD> 

<DT>alphabetic order</DT> 

<DT>American Society of Indexers</DT> 

<DT>anchors</DT> 

<DD>creating</DD> 

<DD>links to</DD> 

<DL> 

<DD>in the same page</DD> 

<DD>in a different page</DD> 

</DL> 

<DT>ASCII format</DT> 

<DT>asterisks, in frames</DT> 

<DT>attributes</DT> 

</DL> 

It can get confusing coding definition lists. Be sure to test your HTML carefully by looking at it through more than one browser (at least Netscape and Internet Explorer) as you go along to make sure you are achieving the effect you are seeking. 

Experiment with various methods of coding an index, using definition lists as well as other methods to find a method that works for you and the particular project you are working on. 

3. Adding Links and Targets:

Now you have the index formatted so that it looks like an index. It’s time to add links so that it actually functions as an index. 

First, you have to decide whether you want your index entry to link to a specific point in a page, or just to the top of the page, or whether you want to use some combination of specific and general references. Your decision may be based on several factors, including how information-packed the pages are, whether your entry is a general concept that is discussed throughout the Web page, or whether it is a very specific mention that occurs only once and may be hard to find; whether you have access to the pages that are references, or whether you have control only over the index document itself, and, to some degree, your personal preference. 

Let’s assume your index will include both types of links. We’ll start with general links to the top of other Web pages. As noted above, links are created with the <A> tag and HREF attribute. The value is the complete URL of the Web page you want to link to, and it is placed inside quotation marks. 

<A HREF="http://www.asindexing.org">American Society of Indexers/asipub.htm</A>When, as in our sample Web site index, the pages referred to in the index are on the same site and in the same directory as the index page itself, our job is simplified. We need only include the name of the Web page itself:  <A HREF="asipub.htm">American Society of Indexers</A>Let’s assume that, in our Web site, absolute URLs are discussed on a Web page named urls.htm; accents are discussed on a page named fonts.htm; alignment in general is discussed on page align.htm; alignment of images is discussed on page image.htm; and alignment of text is discussed on page text.htm. We need to add an appropriate <A HREF> tag to each entry and subentry in our index:  <DL> 

<DT><A HREF="urls.htm">absolute URLs</A></DT> 

<DT><A HREF="fonts.htm">accents</A></DT> 

<DT><A HREF="align.htm">alignment</A></DT> 

<DD><A HREF="image.htm">of images</A></DD> 

<DD><A HREF="text.htm">of text</A></DD> 

…. 

</DL> 

When your page is viewed in a browser, your links will be underlined (unless you specify another approach): 
absolute URLs
accents
alignment
of images
of text
There are many factors that may affect your index formatting choices. If, for instance, alignment of text is discussed on several pages, you can devise a separate subentry for each occurrence: 
alignment
of text in paragraphs
of text in tables
of text in titles
Or you can devise a method of indicating pages, perhaps by the title of the page referenced, or through a numerical system: 
alignment
of text paragraphs, tables, titles
alignment
of text, Formatting with Tables, Title Style, Working with Paragraphs 
alignment
of text, ref. 1, ref. 2, ref. 3
Suppose the Working with Paragraphs page is very long and you want to make sure that the user can easily find the information on text alignment within the page. You may want to link the index term directly to the discussion of text alignment in the Working with Paragraphs page. You can do this by creating an anchor in the Working with Paragraphs page and specifying a link to that anchor when you create your <A HREF> link. 

Let’s say the page Working with Paragraphs page is called parag.htm and that the paragraph relating to text alignment starts off like this: 

To begin a new paragraph, begin with "<P". If you want to align text in the paragraph to the center or to the right, type ALIGN=CENTER or ALIGN=RIGHT. Then type the closing angle bracket, ">". You want the index user to be transported to the beginning of this paragraph, so you place an anchor (sometimes called a target) there. To do this, use the <A> tag with the NAME attribute.  <A NAME="textalign">To begin a new paragraph, begin with "<P". If you want to align text in the paragraph to the center or to the right, type ALIGN=CENTER or ALIGN=RIGHT. Then type the closing angle bracket, ">".Now write a link tag that includes the anchor by adding a # sign and the name of the anchor:  alignment 

<A HREF="parag.htm#texalign">of text</A>

4. Index Navigation Systems:

Your Web site index may fit on one page or it may take up many pages, depending on the nature and size to the Web site you are indexing and the comprehensiveness of your index. In any case, you will need some sort of navigation system to transport users to specific parts of your index. Assuming your index is alphabetical, this means you will probably want to create an alphabet across the top of your index page with links from each letter to the beginning of each alphabetical section of your index. 

The most common method is to set up an alphabetical menu across the top of your page, using a | symbol between each letter: 

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z 

Add a target to each alphabetical letter heading in your index and create a link from each alphabetical letter in the menu to the targets in the body of your index. If your index is spread over numerous Web pages, use appropriate links and targets. 

One problem with this type of menu is that the user may find herself continually having to scroll back to the beginning of the page to find the menu. You can resolve that in several ways, including placing the menu intermittently throughout the Web page, before each letter header, for instance; or placing the index navigation letters (or the index itself, if it is small) in a frame so that it is always at the top (or side or bottom) available to the user, whenever he needs it. 

Some Web designers and users dislike frames, but they can be very useful as a design tool, and they are especially useful in creating an index that becomes an integral part of the navigation system of the Web site. 

The following section explains how to create a simple frames-based Web site index. 

5. Frames 

With frames, you can divide your page into two areas, one for the index and one for the indexing navigation letters (A, B, C, etc.). When you click on the letter "P," you'll find yourself in the "P" section of the index. Once you find the term you're looking for, let's say periodical indexing, you can click on the locator, and the area of the page that once held the index now hold the information on periodical indexing. The index letters at the top of the page have remained in place though, and you can get back to the index by clicking on them.

The first step in creating a frames page is to create a frames document that defines how the page is to be divided. You can make horizontal or vertical divisions, and you can nest frames within each other. We will discuss only a simple frame system that divides the page into a main text area and a narrow band at the top of the page containing the index letters.

First, create your Web site index and name it siteindex.htm, and create your alphabet letters page, and name it letters.htm. (Or whatever names you choose.)

Next, open a blank page and give it a name. Let's call it Websiteindex.htm. Frames pages begins with an <HTML> tag, followed by a <frameset> tag rather than by a <body> tag. The <frameset> tag allows you to size the frames by percentage of the screen or by absolute value (number of pixels).When you want to create a narrow band of a specific size to hold the alphabet letters, sizing by pixels makes more sense.

<frameset rows="10,*">
This tag creates two horizontal frames, one 10 pixels high at the top of your page. The asterisk means that the second frame takes up the rest of the space on your page.

To designate frames by percentage, simply add a % sign.

Now we have to describe the two frames we created. Each requires a <frame> tag with two attributes, the source of the frame and the name of the frame. The source tells the browser which document to pull into the frame; while the name is important when you start linking between frames.

Frames are always described from top to bottom (or left to right, if you are using vertical frames), so the first frame refers to the alphabet letters, letters.htm. The second frame will contain your index, siteindex.htm. We describe the frames with <frame> tags:

<frame src="letters.htm" name="frame1">

<frame src="siteindex.htm" name="frame2">

You can control frame margins with marginwidth and marginheight attributes; whether or not the frame has a scrollbar with the scrolling attribute, and whether or not the frame can be resized with the noresize attribute. 

To eliminate scrolling and resizing of the letters frame, we add these attributes:

<frame src="letters.htm" name="frame1" scrolling=no noresize> 

Now, when you load Websiteindex.htm, you should see a narrow frame at the top, containing the letters and a larger area below it, containing the index.

The last step in the process is to add links to your letters.htm page so that the viewer will see the "M" section of the index when you click on the M. Next, add anchors at the beginning of each letter section in the index so that you can provide links to the letters, not just to the top of the page. Finally, create links designating frame2 as the target. Below is an example for letter A.

<a href="siteindex.htm#a" target="frame2">A</a>

If you don't designate a target, the index will open up in your narrow letters frame. The target tells the browser to load the index in the larger frame. The links in the index itself do not have targets, so, when you click on a locator in the index, the page will open in the larger frame. 

There are many ways to customize frames so that they will do exactly what you want, and there are many online tutorials and books that can help you. After you have created a simple frame, such as this one, experiment with some different types of frames for different purposes.

6. Index maintenance and troubleshooting

Chances are you’ll make a lot of mistakes in HTML when you first start out—and for some time after that. 

Check your work in a browser to make sure all the links work. Then check it in a number of different browsers (at least the most popular ones) to make sure it looks the way you want it to. It is also very helpful to have someone else look at the site.

Don't forget to update your index when you make changes to your Web site.

There are a myriad of useful programs available to help you in all aspects of Web site design. You may want to use several programs, to take advantage of their different features. You can use some of these  programs without any understanding of HTML at all, but it is best to create a few pages using "raw" HTML. Your understanding of the codes and what they do and the process of HTML will help greatly when you run into problems--and you will.  Fortunately, however, there is no lack of sources of help: books, magazines, Web sites, and trusted friends. 

7. Web Indexing Programs:

There are several  Web indexing programs on the market that can alleviate most of the tedium of writing HTML by hand. Evaluate the programs carefully to make sure you are buying the one that best suits your needs. It is possible to have a program modified to suit your specific needs, too. The client may be willing to pay for this additional programming, especially if it will help you make the Web index more accurate and speed up the process of Web indexing.

Two programs programs you may wish to look into are: 

HTML IndexerTM 3.0 (for Windows)
David M. Brown
Brown Inc.
7417 SW B-H Hwy., #524
Portland, OR 97225-2169
E-Mail: info@html-indexer.com
URL: http://www.html-indexer.com/

HTML/Prep
David K. Ream
Leverage Technologies, Inc.
9519 Greystone Parkway
Cleveland, OH 44141-2939,
Tel: (888)-838-1203
Fax: (440)-838-1203
Email: info@LevTechInc.com
URL: http://LevTechInc.com

For More Information:

There are a multitude of resources available in bookstores and on the Web for the beginning and advancing Web site designer and indexers. Here are some of them. 

Books

Web site design books are out of date almost as soon as they are published, so I highly recommend browsing in your local bookstore or your favorite cyberspace bookstore for current and additional selections. 

Bryant, Stephanie Cottrell, Teach Yourself HTML 4 (Foster City, CA: IDG Press, 1999) 

Castro, Elizabeth, HTML 4 for the World Wide Web (Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press, 1998) 

Web Sites

These are some of the larger and longer established sites devoted to aiding the new HTML user. Each has links to lots more general and specific sites, tutorials, and articles on HTML and Web site design. For even more options, use your favorite search engine to search for Web site design, HTML tutorials, or related terms. 

Art and the Zen of Web Sites
Lots of good advice on goals, navigation, generating repeat business, color, image maps, page titles, images, loading time, animated images, Java, frames, text, and advertising, told with humor.

A Beginner's Guide to HTML
Good introduction, includes links to other tutorials, from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 

HTML Writer's Guild
The WWW Development Resources contains a large and useful collection of links.

Webreference: Developer's Corner
Many links to tutorials and information on all aspects of Web page development

Web Developers Virtual Library
Many links to topics and tutorials

Wired ex WebMonkey
Has lots of good, easy-to-understand tutorials

and Webdesign for Kids (ex WebMonkey for Kids)
if you want a nice simple introduction to Web site design. 
 

For more information, please e-mail Marilyn Rowland.

© 2000 Marilyn Joyce Rowland

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